In a pair of policy memoranda released to the public in July 2018, the Administration is drastically changing the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service’s (USCIS, formerly INS) role in adjudications. Initially formed as the immigration benefits-adjudicating sub-agency when the Department of Homeland Security took over immigration functions from the Department of Justice after 9/11, USCIS is typically involved in a very low percentage of the overall enforcement actions of the DHS agencies. (Most enforcement is done by DHS’s other immigration sub-agencies, ICE and CBP.) For example, unless fraud or criminality is suspected, USCIS traditionally has not initiated removal (deportation) proceedings in the course of adjudicating benefits applications, such as nonimmigrant and immigrant visa petitions, applications for adjustment of status to U.S. permanent residence, or naturalizations. However, in a new policy memo released on July 5, 2018 (but dated June 28), entitled Updated Guidance for the Referral of Cases and Issuance of Notices to Appear (NTAs) in Cases Involving Inadmissible and Deportable Aliens (“NTA Memo”) and effective immediately, the Administration announced that USCIS will now initiate removal proceedings in a wide variety of circumstances.
In two separate Federal Court decisions issued on October 17, 2017, the majority of the travel restrictions set forth in President Trump’s September 24, 2017 proclamation titled “Enhancing Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry into the United States by Terrorists or other Public-Safety Threats” were blocked. As a result, nationals of Iran, Libya, Syria, Yemen, Somalia and Chad will not be restricted from traveling to the United States. However, all immigrants and nonimmigrants from North Korea and certain government officials and their family members from Venezuela traveling on business or tourist visas (B-1/B-2) will continue to be restricted from travel to the U.S. The U.S. Department of Justice has stated that it will appeal these rulings.
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On September 24, 2017 President Trump announced an extended and enhanced version of the travel ban that was previously in place under Executive Order 13780 (EO-2). The Presidential Proclamation titled “Enhancing Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry into the United States by Terrorists or other Public-Safety Threats,” a related Fact Sheet, and FAQs for the new ban are available on the White House website. As with EO-2, the ban affects immigrant and nonimmigrant visa issuance only. Therefore, nationals from the affected countries who already hold visas will not have those revoked. The U.S. Department of State has also announced that previously scheduled visa appointments will not be cancelled.
On Friday August 25, 2017, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) confirmed to Politico that certain permanent residence (green card) applicants must complete an in-person interview as part of the application process. The requirement will apply to anyone moving from a work visa to permanent residence, and is “part of President Donald Trump’s plan to apply ‘extreme vetting’ to immigrants and visitors to the U.S.”
News Release from Jewell Stewart & Pratt PC – June 5, 2017 As noted in our prior post, the Department of State recently published a Notice of request for emergency approval by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for its new form, Form DS-5535, Supplemental Questions for Visa Applicants. The form was designed to collect extra information from visa applicants who have been determined to warrant additional scrutiny in connection with terrorism or other national security-related visa ineligibility.
According to a news report from The Washington Post, Form DS-5535 was approved by the OMB and has been in use at U.S. embassies and consulates since May 25, 2017. A copy of the form is currently available on the U.S. Embassy and Consulates in Turkey website. The extra information it collects includes:
- Countries visited over the last fifteen years
- Email addresses used in the past five years
- Social media handles and aliases used in the past five years
Form DS-5535 is authorized on an emergency basis through November 2017, but as The Washington Post article notes, it is expected to be authorized on a permanent basis.
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As noted in our prior blog post, a Department of State cable sent by Secretary Tillerson on March 17, 2017 provided immediately effective guidance to all U.S. diplomatic and consular posts regarding the screening and vetting of visa applications.
On May 4, 2017, the Department of State published a Notice of request for emergency OMB approval and public comment on a new Form DS-5535, Supplemental Questions for Visa Applicants. This form would collect information from visa applicants who have been determined to warrant additional scrutiny in connection with terrorism or other national security-related visa ineligibility.
News Release from Jewell Stewart & Pratt PC The final rule “Retention of EB-1, EB-2 and EB-3 Immigrant Workers and Program Improvements Affecting High-Skilled Nonimmigrant Workers,” was published today in the Federal Register, and will take effect 60 days later (January 17, 2017). This is notable as it will be effective before the inauguration of the new president two days later.
This rule is concerned with creating and amending regulations related to employment-based visa programs and is intended to better enable U.S. employers in retaining high-skilled nonimmigrant workers through temporary and permanent sponsorship, and to provide job flexibility and certainty to foreign workers who have been in the U.S. for some time.
Jewell Stewart & Pratt will be posting analysis on the rule next week, in the interim, the highlights are:
- Retention of approved immigrant visa petitions (I-140) and priority dates.
- H-1B extensions beyond the sixth year.
- Job portability for H-1B workers and for those who are in the final step of the permanent residence process.
- Definition of nonprofit entity for H-1B cap exemption.
- Grace periods for nonimmigrant workers.
- Employment authorization in compelling circumstances for certain beneficiaries (and their dependents) of an approved I-140 petition, as well as employment authorization automatic extensions in certain circumstances.
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The American Competitiveness in the Twenty-First Century Act of 2000 (AC21) addressed the problem of delays and backlogs in the employment-based immigrant visa process by permitting certain applicants for adjustment of status to change jobs or employers. (See our post on the subject here.) Employers of these individuals do not need to retest the labor market for the new position, or obtain new, approved petitions on their behalf, if the following criteria are satisfied:
- An immigrant visa petition (Form I-140) on behalf of the applicant has been approved, or was approvable when filed.
- A filed application to adjust status to permanent resident, filed on the basis of the I-140, remains unadjudicated after 180 days or more.
- The applicant’s new job is in the same or a similar occupational classification as the job for which the petition was filed.
We posted here about recent changes to the way the U.S. Department of State determines immigrant visa availability under the statutory system of preference categories and per-country quotas. The Department's Visa Bulletin now provides two cut-off dates – one governing when an I-485 application to adjust status to permanent residence may be filed ('Dates for Filing Applications') and one governing when a pending I-485 may be approved.
News Release from Jewell & Associates, PC We previously posted here about unconfirmed reports of a possible change to the way the U.S. Department of State determines immigrant visa availability under the statutory system of preference categories and per-country quotas. These changes have now been confirmed in a post on the U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services website.
Instead of a single cut-off date for each country of chargeability in each preference category, the monthly State Department Visa Bulletin now provides two cut-off dates – one governing when an I-485 application to adjust status to permanent residence may be filed (“Dates for Filing Applications”) and one governing when a pending I-485 may be approved (“Application Final Action Dates”). This new system has been implemented in time for the October 2015 visa bulletin.
The net effect of this change is to make the benefits of a pending I-485 application – including portability of the permanent residence process under the American Competitiveness in the Twenty-First Century Act of 2000 (AC21) – available to prospective immigrants sooner than under the prior system.
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